FAQ

EDF Renewables


Who is EDF Renewables?

EDF Renewables is a market leading independent power producer and service provider with more than 30 years of experience leading the way to a clean energy future with large-scale projects that put the economy, communities and the environment first.

EDF Renewables has developed, financed, constructed, operates and manages more than 16 gigawatts (the equivalent of 160 million 100-watt light bulbs) of renewable energy projects in North America over the last 30 years. In New York, the company built, owns and operates the 80-megawatt (the equivalent of 800 thousand 100 watt light bulbs) Copenhagen Wind Farm in Lewis County and is currently developing the 177 megawatt (the equivalent of 1.77 million 100 watt light bulbs) Morris Ridge Solar Energy Center in Livingston County, anticipated to be operational by 2023.

Has EDF Renewables created a facility of this size with energy storage?

EDF Renewables completed a number of other large solar electricity generating projects, including the 143 MW Catalina Solar project in California and 137 MW Playa 2 Solar project in Nevada. EDF Renewables is starting construction on projects as large as the 500 MW Palen Solar project in California. EDF Renewables is also committed to building the 200 MW Arrow Canyon Solar project in Nevada that will be completed in 2022 and include a significant energy storage component.

Ridge View Solar


What is Ridge View Solar?

The Ridge View Solar Energy Center is a proposed 350MW solar photovoltaic project that will be sited on approximately 2,000 acres of private land located in the Towns of Hartland and Newfane in Niagara County, New York. The project will generate enough electricity to power 75,000 homes, provide tax and job benefits to the region, and contribute to New York State’s renewable energy targets.

Siting


Why not put the solar project along the existing power line right of way?
The power line right of ways are owned by the utility company and typically need to be clear of development so the lines can be accessed for operation and maintenance. Transmission lines and towers cast shade on the panels which negatively impacts production.
Why are you choosing a cloudy area as your first large project?

The cost of solar energy decreased significantly in the past 10 years. Based on factual solar irradiation information that we’ve gathered, it is now economically viable to generate solar electricity in New York.

I live in the project area. One of my neighbors bought a neighboring property about 2 years ago. I feel he had prior knowledge of this project and bought the property for this sole reason.
We did not start approaching landowners about this opportunity until the spring of 2019, therefore nobody had knowledge of this projects prior to then.
Why is this project being proposed on land that is being used for agriculture?

EDF Renewables recognizes the significant amount of land required to accommodate solar projects and we put a great deal of effort into co- locating various forms of agriculture within our project sites. For example, we have worked to incorporate sheep grazing and foraging of bees, creating critical habitat for the declining bee populations on a 200-acre project in Ontario, Canada. The site yields 300 jars of honey and hosts 300 sheep annually.

We want to engage with farmers in the community to include similar types of agrivoltaics (co-development of solar for electricity and agriculture) at this project.

Hunting


What is the hunting setback around battery modules?

There are no prescribed setbacks from the energy storage or solar facilities. Our facilities are enclosed by a fence and therefore hunting would take place outside of the fenced area of our facilities and respect all local laws and applicable hunting practices.

Taxes


Will land previously taxed as agriculture will now be taxed as commercial?

Land that is being taxed as agriculture exempt will lose this exemption and be applied a penalty paid by EDF Renewables. Hosting a solar project will not change the zoning designation of host properties or neighboring properties. Ridge View Solar project will not affect the property taxes of neighboring properties.

Properties hosting project components may have an increase in taxes, which will be paid by EDF Renewables.

Can the town of Hartland spend the income from solar payments any way they want or is property tax stabilization written into the town agreements?

Funds that will be contributed to the town of Hartland are typically for the town and its citizens to determine how it will be spent. EDF renewables does not determine how the funds will be spent or allocated.

If you are not someone with panels on your land, the only benefit to the public at large is through tax relief?

Ridge View solar will provide substantial new revenues (anticipated to be more than $1,000,000 per year) paid to the host Town(s), County and associated school districts. The project will also be sited with appropriate visual setbacks and buffering to properly integrate the project in the community.

The town and its citizens would have an opportunity to determine how the funds are appropriated. The land rent paid to landowners is also a significant investment in the community.

More than 300 jobs will be created to build the project over two years and four full time positions will be created during operation. All these new investments will have an appreciable benefit to the community at large.

Why not pay full taxes? A PILOT is a tax break.

PILOTs are negotiated with many other businesses too, not just solar. Ridge View Solar intends to negotiate a PILOT with the Niagara County Industrial Development Agency and Host Community Agreements with the Town of Hartland and the Town of Newfane that would contribute 10 times more revenue to the community than the current taxes paid by the host properties.

This means about $1,000,000 in new revenues paid to the Town(s), County and associated school districts each year.

Will land previously taxed as agriculture will now be taxed as commercial?

Land that is being taxed as agriculture exempt and hosting solar panels will lose their exemption. The property taxes on the properties will increase due to the loss of agriculture exemption which will be paid by EDF renewables. Hosting a solar project will not change the zoning designation of the property as solar is allowed on properties as of right under the zoning code. The solar project will not affect the property taxes of neighboring properties nor increase taxes for anyone in the community. As proposed, the tax revenue generated by the lands hosting the project will increase by about ten fold compared to agricultural exempt. This additional revenue for the Town, County and School Districts will be paid by EDF Renewables.

Land/Farm


Do you pay landowners for right of ways (transmission lines, access roads, under or over ground cables)?

Yes any property that will host project infrastructure will have a lease or easement agreement and will receive a form of compensation.

Do local residents have any way to stop expansion to properties next to them?

The project requires landowners to sign lease or easement agreements to install project related components on a property. We are sensitive to our project neighbors, and want to meet with them, discuss appropriate setbacks, visual buffering and other interests. According to studies, there are no impacts to property values neighboring solar projects.

Why do you lease vs buying property for building the system?
EDF Renewables is not a real estate company and prefers to lease properties because it is important to keep ownership of the properties in the local community. That way, when the leases expire, local people have the opportunity to determine what happens to the properties. A benefit of solar energy leases is that the landowners make a steady revenue stream for many decades while the project is in operation.
How will farmland be protected?

The project must follow strict guidelines by the Department of Agriculture and Markets during construction and decommissioning to protect topsoil and repair soil compaction. As part of decommissioning, the land can be returned to farming and the soil could benefit from grazing by sheep or other uses during the project operating life.

Solar panels are used to convert sunlight to a usable source of electricity, much like plants convert sunlight to crops for energy. Just like farms produce corn, soy, grains, milk and meat that are sold to urban and rural markets, the electricity produced by the solar project supplies the same urban and rural markets.

EDF Renewables successfully integrated 300 sheep on a 200 acre solar project in Ontario Canada. The farmers will be able to sell free range grass fed lamb on the market as a result.

A video about solar grazing produced by EnterSolar, an affiliate of EDF Renewables is available here. A second video about solar grazing, by Farm Credit East, is available here.

Sheep farming is not really a profitable business in this area. Who controls the weeds and brush in the area?

We are sensitive to the use of agricultural land and are continually trying to find ways to incorporate agriculture with solar. One such way is by grazing sheep among the solar panels to control vegetation. We usually pay a business to provide vegetation management services which can include mechanical mowing, but we love the idea of sheep grazing in lieu of mechanical mowing as much as possible.

Typically the way this works is we sign an agreement and pay the business or farmer to maintain the vegetation by using sheep and/or mechanical mowing.

How come you don’t have to do an agricultural impact study?

The Article 10 review process and the application will assess impacts of the Project on agricultural lands and, depending on comments received during the scoping phase of the process, may include a specific agricultural impact study.

Why do you not have to file and agricultural impact statement?

As noted in the previous comment, agricultural impacts will be assessed in the Article 10 application.

Environment


How does moving to renewables (solar) help rural communities protect themselves from climate change?

Solar is an integral part of a cleaner, less carbon emitting electricity system. Any carbon that can be mitigated has a direct positive impact on overall climate change. A project like Ridge View solar can offset the burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity and generate positive change in the face of climate change. Ridge View Solar project is anticipated to avoid more than 404,000 metric tons of CO₂ emissions annually which represents the greenhouse gas emissions from 85,700 passenger vehicles driven over the course of one year.

Are you clear cutting wooded lots to host the project?

Project components are intended to be sited to the greatest extent possible on lands that are already cleared. However, depending on the land participating in the project there might be some infrastructure sited within areas that are currently wooded.

How many greenhouse gasses will we be able to avoid with this project?
The expected electricity generated in one year is enough to meet the consumption of up to 75,000 average homes. This is equivalent to avoiding more than 404,000 metric tons of CO₂ emissions annually which represents the greenhouse gas emissions from 85,700 passenger vehicles driven over the course of one year.
What are long-term studies showing on contamination? How old is your oldest solar farm?

The material that makes up the solar panels is contained within the panels themselves. Therefore, there have not been any environmental contaminant studies conducted on these projects as it is not warranted.

Our oldest large utility scale solar facility is 10 years old and it continues to be in operation and is still owned by EDF Renewables. The same solar panels that were installed 10 years ago are still producing electricity on site.

This site is still very much sustainable and hosts more than 300 sheep grazing vegetation among the solar panels and bee hives that produce 300 x 16 oz jars of honey annually.

Eminent Domain


Is eminent domain used to take properties or right of ways?

EDF Renewables does not have access to eminent domain. All the properties that will host the facility will be signed up to lease or easement agreements mutually agreed to between EDF Renewables and landowners.

What if after the facility is up and running, Cuomo uses eminent domain to take over land

What if after the facility is up and running, Cuomo uses eminent domain to take over land The Project Sponsor does not have the authority to take land via eminent domain. Moreover, we are not aware of any plans or proposals by the State of New York involving renewable energy power generation projects and eminent domain.

Power


Where is power generated by the project going?

The vast majority of the energy generated will be consumed locally (in Buffalo and Rochester and in the towns in between). Most of the remainder will be consumed upstate and a small percentage will be delivered to New York City.

Much like the dairy, corn, grains, and vegetables produced locally feeds both rural and urban centers, so does the electricity we will generate.

How are you connecting to the grid?
We need to build a substation that collects all of the electricity generated from the solar panels and increase the voltage for injection onto the 345kv transmission lines. That substation would be located on leased property adjacent to the exiting transmission line originating from the Somerset coal facility.
If this is another way to deliver electricity downstate, why impact my neighborhood. Why not make this work downstate?

100% of the energy generated will be delivered to the pool that supplies all New York consumers via the transmission grid. The vast majority of the energy generated will be consumed locally (in Buffalo and Rochester and in the towns in between). Most of the remainder will be consumed upstate and a small percentage will be delivered to New York City. Much like the dairy, corn, grains, and vegetables produced locally feeds both rural and urban centers, so does the electricity we will generate.

The town of Hartland hosts a 345kV transmission line that is required for hosting a facility of this type.

Ridge View Solar project will contribute significant benefits to the community like guaranteed long term revenues to farms and landowners and contribute about 10 times more revenue to the Town(s), County and school district(s) than the current land use.

Studies indicate that there is no reduction in land values for properties neighboring a solar facility.

Solar farm is paid for with our tax dollars to make electricity that we don’t need. Then NY State has promised to buy this unnecessary power. Won't that increase our utility costs to cover this, just like the most recent rate hike?

No tax dollars are being paid to the project to build the project. The project only gets paid as electricity is sold to the grid. Renewable energy generation, including solar is necessary in New York state to meet targets to generate 70% of New York’s electricity from renewable energy sources by 2030.

The cost of solar electricity has decreased substantially in the past 10 years and it is now economically feasible in New York.

How does solar compare to natural gas, coal, nuclear in relation to emissions/pollution?
Solar energy does not produce any greenhouse gases during the operation of the facility. Overall manufacturing through to decommissioning, the carbon footprint of a solar is about one tenth of coal and one fifth of natural gas.
Will we be able to chose you guys as our energy suppliers?

At this point in time, the electricity generated by the project would be sold to the merchant market and not available for direct purchase from persons or businesses in the local community. However, it may be possible to aggregate electricity customers in the area or negotiate offtake agreements with businesses to sell the electricity and or renewable energy credits directly to them.

Ridge View solar project can supply enough electricity to meet the demands of about 80,000 homes, and therefore would require agreements with a significant number of homes or one or more businesses using significant electricity.

Is excess energy transferred to the grid or stored on site?
We are not committed to energy storage at this point in time. It is something that the team is still evaluating. For transparency, we are permitting the project as if it will include an energy storage component. If the project does include energy storage, the excess energy produced will be stored on site and injected to the grid when needed (includes in the evening or at night when there is no sun). Otherwise, excess electricity, if available, is not produced onto the grid.

Noise


Do the panels make noise?
No, the solar panels do not make noise. Some of the facility components such as inverters and transformers do make noise but that equipment is sited with appropriate setbacks from neighboring homes so that the sound observed would be no louder than that of a quiet room.

Decommissioning


What is decommissioning and who will pay for it?

Decommissioning is the process of removing equipment (solar panels, inverters, transformers) and improvements (roads and fences) and returning the land to its prior use when a solar facility is at its end of life. This is paid for by the project owner, and not the landowner or municipality.

To ensure these activities are planned for and funded, the project will post a security, sometimes in the form of a letter of credit, to cover the cost to decommission the facility. This security is required by New York State and is posted before operations begin.

The project cannot receive permission to operate without this commitment to cover decommissioning costs.

If project land was previously used for agriculture, any topsoil that was removed or disturbed during the construction, operation or decommissioning of the solar facility will be replaced so the land can be returned to farming.

What happens to solar panels at the end of life?
The disposal of solar panels in New York must conform to all governmental, environmental, and legal requirements. The Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) established a national recycling program connecting US-based recyclers with business who have solar panels to recycle. Many components of crystalline silicon panels can be reused and recycled, namely the metal, glass and wiring components, as well as the silicon cells which can be melted down to reclaim the silicon and various metals by specialty recycling companies. The Solar Panel Collection Act- Senate Bill S942, is currently being drafted and reviewed by the New York Senate Environmental Conservation Committee. This legislation will require solar panel manufacturers to collect their solar panels once they are taken out of use and impose restrictions on how the panels can be disposed.
If EDF goes bust, and there is not enough money to decommission do the property owners have to pay to remove panels?

EDF Renewables is obligated to provide a decommissioning security prior to the start of operation in favor of the host town(s) that provides the town(s) with the necessary funds to decommission the facility in the event that the project owner is not able to. These funds will be available even if the project owner does not have funds at that time.

Decommissioning means the removal of all equipment and restoration of the land.

Jobs


Where is labor force coming from?

During the development process, people are employed conducting site surveys, permitting, community engagement, land acquisition and many more activities. We have hired a number of consultants within Western New York area to help with these tasks.

Construction is anticipated to take two years, and at its peak, require more than three hundred workers. It is anticipated that a significant component of the labor force will be sourced from Western New York. Part of our four person operations team is anticipated to be staffed locally provided that candidates for the position are available.

Zoning


Why is land not being re-zoned for commercial?

Land is not being re-zoned for commercial because solar energy is permitted within the current land designation.

Will re-zoning of areas be required, including rezoning of non-panel properties?

There will be no rezoning required as part of the project. It is not necessary for this type of development as it is allowed under the current zoning. The zoning of neighboring properties will not change because of the project.

Safety


Are solar panels safe?

Crystalline silicon panels that are manufactured using safe and non-toxic materials are proposed for this project. These modules are comprised of silicon, copper and aluminum, sandwiched between glass and a plastic encapsulant with an aluminum frame. These types of solar panels do not contain toxic materials and are the same type that are commonly installed on rooftops and schools.

How can I trust that energy storage systems are going to be safe?

The 2019 Energy Storage System Supplement was added to the New York State Uniform Fire Prevention and Building code, establishing new provisions that must be followed when energy storage systems are installed in New York. According to the notice posted to the New York State Register October 16, 2019, “these new provisions will require extra protective measures in all cases where [energy storage systems] are used; require extra protective measures based on the location of the installation; and otherwise enhance the level of protection to all people of the State from the potential hazard of fires caused by the installation and use of [energy storage systems]”. Source

Training for local resources is available from NYSERDA upon request. With proper training, incidents involving energy storage systems can be addressed by local emergency response personnel.

Can lithium ion leak into the soil from one of our energy storage containers?

Lithium batteries don’t have ‘liquids’ in them, per se. They do have a kind of paste that’s wrapped up tightly within the cells, but any “leaking” would only occur under failure conditions and would be highly unlikely to be significant enough in volume to penetrate module casings, containers, and foundations to seep into the soil. In a failure event that escalates, it is far more likely that the product of the failure will be gases, not liquids.

The failure condition that is noted above is very unlikely, especially with new codes and standards that require protective measures that keep evolving to safeguard equipment, personnel and the public, as illustrated in the video mentioned above.

In the event there is a fire, is the fire department going to be able to get in these fenced areas immediately?

All of our facilities will include Knox boxes and local first responders will have keys to enter the facility. Depending on the agreement with first responders and their comfort with the facility, they will either a) wait for operations personnel to arrive before entering the facility or b) notify EDF Renewables and enter the facility prior to the arrival of Operations & Maintenance personnel.

A local crew of 4 or more persons would operate and maintain the facility, therefore there would be staff living near the project.

Placards around the facility will provide a number to call our operations and maintenance control center, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year and speak to a live person.

Can solar panels catch fire?

Solar panels rarely catch fire and are not combustible. In the unlikely event of a fire within a solar panel, it would smoulder and not likely spread.

During the permitting process and prior to the start of construction, the project team will meet with local EMS officials to confirm the appropriate training and response protocols to be followed. A Health and Safety Plan, Site Security Plan and Emergency Action Plan will be prepared as part of the permitting process and will be reviewed with local EMS officials prior to the start of construction.

Why should we be the next love canal?

This project, or any solar and energy storage project, will not release contaminants into the surrounding environment. The solar panels are manufactured using safe and non-toxic materials and will not contaminate the land hosting them.

In fact, projects like this one often host sheep grazing and bees foraging the vegetation among the solar panels.

Can you show us human health studies for folks living around such a large solar power plant?

There have been no scientific research studies on people living in proximity to solar farms. This is because there are no contaminants emitted from solar projects. Any of the material in the solar panels is contained within the panels themselves and does not leach to the environment. The collector lines (low voltage) and power lines associated with solar projects are no different that those we have in our existing environment and do not pose a health threat to those living nearby.

What are long-term studies showing on contamination? How old is your oldest solar farm?

Our oldest large utility scale solar facility is 10 years old and was put into operation at the end of 2009. it continues to be in operation and is still owned by EDF Renewables. The same solar panels that were installed 10 years ago are still producing electricity on site.

The material that makes up the solar panels is contained within the panels themselves. Therefore, there have not been any environmental contaminant studies conducted on these projects as it is not warranted.

Property Values


What happens to neighboring property values?

The Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) has examined property values across the United States. Their studies demonstrate large-scale solar arrays often have no measurable impact on the value of adjacent properties and in some cases may even have positive effects.

Furthermore, the proximity to solar farms does not deter the sales of agricultural or residential land. Large solar projects have similar characteristics to a greenhouse or single-story residence and the integration of visual buffers, such as natural vegetation, trees, and green fences lessen the visual impact of the project from neighboring homes and roads.

Read the full SEIA fact sheet here.

Schedule


What is the anticipated project timeline?

Ridge View Solar Energy Center must complete a thorough permitting process that takes a minimum of three years to complete with multiple opportunities for input from all stakeholders.

The project would not be able to start construction before 2023. Construction would last 2 years and the operation phase is intended to last 30-40 years after which time the project would be decommissioned and the land returned to its previous use, including farming.

When will construction start, if the project does go forward?

Construction could start as early as 2022 (at the conclusion of permitting) and be operational two years thereafter.

Benefits


How many jobs would be created?

More than 300 jobs will be created during construction (expected to last two years) as well as four full time positions during operation, fostering significant long-term job growth along with other projects across the state within the renewable energy sector.

Businesses that benefit from labor, services and material supply before, during and after construction include environmental consulting, project and construction management, surveying, geotech, construction services, equipment rental, landscaping, maintenance, and hospitality to name a few.

What community benefits are proposed if the project goes forward?

Ridge View Solar project is proposed on 2,000 acres of land. Revenues to the Town of Hartland, Town of Newfane, Niagara County and associated school districts would be about ten times higher than the current tax contributions on those lands.

Taking into account a 2% annual increase, this represents $32 million in new revenues to the host Towns, County and associated school districts over the first 25 years of operation. When landowner payments are added, the contributions to the community are more than $110 million over the same 25 year period. These are all dollars that will be partially reinvested into the community, and do not include paid salaries or locally sourced material, service or equipment supplies. Additional benefits are possible from co-locating farming like sheep grazing and foraging of bees within the solar footprint.

Community Engagement


How does one apply to obtain intervenor funding?

Please refer to the Guide for Intervenor Funding on the Department of Public Service Website.

How does EDF Renewables plan to engage the local community to communicate the project and obtain feedback?

EDF Renewables is committed to a thorough engagement process. The project development team has been in contact with officials from the towns of Hartland and Newfane since the spring of 2019. In August 2019, a first public meeting that was published in local newspapers was held and attended by more than 60 people. A second public meeting was held in November 2019 and attended by 150 people. The permitting process for this project will take until 2022 to complete and there are numerous opportunities for public involvement throughout the process.

Members of the public can share feedback with the project team or ask questions at any time by dialing 833-333-7369, emailing newyorksolar@edf-re.com. Our team is also available to meet with individuals and local organizations who have questions or need more information. Informational boards from the August 2019 and November 2019 public meetings can be found in the resources section and a copy of the Public Involvement Program plan is available here. Additional public meetings will be held at a future date.

Visual Buffering


I heard about visual buffering. What does that mean?

EDF Renewables is sensitive to designing a project that is well received by the community and can be well integrated into the area. Features such as visual buffers typically created by planting vegetation along roadsides and adjacent to neighboring homes near the project help soften the visual impact of the facility and maintain the rural character of the area.

Energy Storage


Why is energy storage being proposed as part of this project?

Energy storage systems are becoming an integral part of a clean electricity system of the future. An integrated energy storage system would allow us to store electricity during the day to produce onto the grid when the sun is not shining and increase the reliability of the facility to better meet New York’s electricity needs. New York State mandated the installation of 3,000 MW of energy storage systems by 2030 through the Climate Leadership and Community Protection Act that was signed into law in July 2019.

Should I be worried about energy storage systems being located in my community?

Energy storage systems can be safely integrated into your community. According to a publication by experts who study and provide testing of energy storage systems, “working at or living near an energy storage system is less risky than driving a car 10 hours per week, smoking, or working in industries such as construction, mining, or agriculture”.

Reference: https://www.dnvgl.com/publications/quantitative-risk-analysis-for-battery-energy-storage-sites-154811

Ridge View Solar project may or may not include energy storage systems. That will be determined at a later date, but for transparency, we are proceeding as if the project will include energy storage.

Watch this short video about energy storage

In regards to battery fires would there be a specific need for a hazmat response?

No, if a fire were to occur it is similar to a large plastics fire. TO prevent thermal runaway each container has a self-monitored fire suppression system. If a thermal event is detected the suppression system should extinguish the fire. The fire department shall be notified to be on standby at the site. The fire department would serve as fire containment i.e.. keeping the battery enclosure contained by spraying water. The EDF Emergency response program will provide all possible scenarios and the proper responses that could ever possibly occur within confines of the sites.

Who pays for fire department training?

Owner would pick up any costs associated with this.

In case of battery fires, is the smoke runoff cause adjacent farm lands to be poisoned for growing?

In the unlikely event of a battery fire EDF will have a number of emergency response procedures in place and work with local fire department to contain the event. Given the relatively low magnitude of smoke, the short burn time and that it will be diluted in the air it is not expected that levels of chemicals in the smoke deposited on to the ground will impact either the participating landowner or adjacent farm fields.

What type of batteries are being proposed, if energy storage is part of the project?

Different chemistries of lithium ion type batteries are being considered, including some that do not contain cobalt.  This project is still years away from construction and the battery technology continues to evolve.  In general, these are the same types of batteries that area in mobile devices, rechargeable batteries for toys, and electric cars.

Other


If this is such a good thing for the community, why would you have to throw millions of dollars to the politicians and landowners to pass it through?

We are not paying millions of dollars to landowners or politicians to pass this through. As any other person or business using land, we are paying rent to landowners hosting the facility and we are providing new revenues to the Town(s), County and school districts. We are following permitting processes that will ensure the project is sustainable and safeguards community interests.

How does a first responder turn the power off to protect themselves?

The site management team would be responsible for shutting down the power. This would be done through our 24/7 Operational Control Center or through the Off-taker.

Are security cameras placed around panels monitoring only them or are some adjacent properties going to be under surveillance?

The surveillance cameras that would be stationed near facility access points are only intended to monitor the facility entry points and the facility itself. Never used to monitor adjacent lands or neighbors.